The Daily Puppy

Thursday, October 7, 2010

WIZARD OF OZ STAGE PLAY...1902

The Wizard of Oz was a 1902 musical play extravaganza based on The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum, which was originally published in 1900. It premiered in Chicago and later moved to Broadway in 1903, where it ran for nearly 293 performances from January 21, 1903 to December 31, 1904, followed by travelling tours of the original cast. It starred Anna Laughlin as Dorothy Gale, Fred Stone as The Scarecrow and David C. Montgomery as the Tin Woodman (who is called Niccolo Chopper in the play [per the books, he had begun life as human Nick Chopper]). Arthur Hill (no relation to the Canadian film, theatre and TV actor) played the Cowardly Lion, but in this version, his role was reduced to a bit part. An element from the show — the snowfall caused by the Good Witch which finally kills the spell of the poppies that had put Dorothy and the Cowardly Lion to sleep — was later used in the famous 1939 movie.




Contents

1 Plot

2 Conception and Script

3 Production

4 Sequel

5 Revivals

6 Music

6.1 by Paul Tietjens

6.2 by L. Frank Baum and Paul Tietjens

6.3 by L. Frank Baum and Nathaniel D. Mann

6.4 by John Slavin and Nathaniel D. Mann

6.5 by A. Baldwin Sloane and Glen MacDonough

6.6 by William Jerome and Jean Schwartz

6.7 by Edgar Smith and A. Baldwin Sloane

6.8 by Weslyn and Albert

6.9 by Harry Freeman

6.10 by James O'Dea and Edward Hutchinson

6.11 by Matt C. Woodward and Benjamin Jerome

6.12 by Will D. Cobb and Gus Edwards

6.13 by Hugh Morton and Gustave Kerker

6.14 by Frank Leo

6.15 by Vincent Bryan and Theodore F. Morse

6.16 by Henry M. Blossom, Jr. and George A. Spink

6.17 by Harry Boden, David C. Montgomery, and Bert Brantford

6.18 by Ed Gardenier and Edwin S. Brill

6.19 by Vincent Bryan and J.B. Mullen

6.20 by Will R. Anderson

6.21 by Edward P. Moran and Seymour Furth

6.22 by Williams and Vanalstyne

6.23 by Charles Zimmerman and Frank Keesee

6.24 by Charles Zimmerman and Hollister

6.25 by Vincent Bryan and Charles Zimmerman

6.26 by Vincent Bryan and Leo Edwards

6.27 by Frank R. Adams, Will M. Hough, and Joseph E. Howard

6.28 by George Totten Smith, Byrd Dougherty, and Benjamin M. Jerome

6.29 by James A. Brennan

7 Show Tour

8 See also

9 References

10 External links



] Plot




The musical is unusual as it is sometimes very faithful to the book, but at other times departs radically. The plot of the musical is as follows:



ACT ONE: Dorothy Gale lives on a farm in Kansas with a farmer (presumably Uncle Henry, although she mentions having a father) and many farm hands and farm maids. One day, whilst Dorothy is playing with her pet cow Imogene, a golfer flirts outrageously with a maid. Things are broken up by a furious cyclone. Dorothy and Imogene take shelter in the farmhouse, which (through a piece of stage trickery highly acclaimed by the theatre critics of the era) is whisked away into the sky. The action shifts to the Land of Oz, where the Munchkins dance around their maypole. Suddenly the cyclone strikes there and the lights go down. When the lights have returned again, Dorothy's house has fallen to earth intact and unharmed, and the house has accidentally killed the Wicked Witch of the East. The Munchkin maiden Cynthia Cynch enters. The Munchkins accuse Cynthia of being a witch and causing the storm but she is rescued by the Good Witch of the North, who tells them that it was an ordinary storm. Cynthia explains she once worked in one of Oz's largest department store, but she is now insane because of the disappearance of her lover, Niccolo Chopper. She sings "Niccolo's Piccolo", her lover's favourite ballad. Soon the poet of Oz, Dashemoff Daily, enters. He declares that the rightful king of Oz, Pastoria, has been swept into Oz via the cyclone and is on his way to the Emerald City to claim the throne. Dorothy exits the house and marvels at the strange land. Dashemoff has written a song for her, thinking her name is Caroline Barry. He is disappointed when Dorothy disproves the fact. The Good Witch awards Dorothy with a magic ring, good for three wishes and can summon the Good Witch at any time. Dorothy wishes she knew the word to Dashemoff's song and accidentally wastes the first wish. She sings the song, "Carrie Barry". Soon Pastoria enters, flanked by General Riskitt, his girlfriend Tryxie Tryfle and the one-man Army of Pastoria. He is scalping tickets for his coronation, in order to finance his revolution. He was lost in Kansas many years ago and began working as a mechanic. He sings "In Michigan", about his favourite US state. The Good Witch tells Dorothy that if she wants to get home, she must ask the Wizard of Oz to help her. After a while, everyone exits and Dorothy is left alone with a Scarecrow, hung on a pole. She wishes she had someone to talk to, and unwittingly wastes another wish on the wishing ring: the Scarecrow comes to life. He gets down off his pole and complains that he has no brain. Dorothy suggests that she join him on the road to the Emerald City and he sings "Alas for the Man Without Brains". Pastoria and Co. have a run-in with the Cowardly Lion, who cannot speak. They capture the Lion and disguise themselves as a traveling circus, pretending the Lion is part of their act. Dorothy and the Scarecrow, meanwhile, are on their way to the Emerald City. They come upon the Tin Woodman, who has rusted playing his piccolo. As it turns out, the Woodman's real name is Niccolo Chopper and he is in fact Cynthia's lost lover. He sings "When You Love! Love! Love!" and explains how he has no heart, so cannot love Cynthia. He joins the others in the hope of receiving one from the Wizard, and return to Cynthia. In the finale of Act One, Dorothy, the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman, Pastoria, the Cowardly Lion and others and Dashemoff Daily all meet in a life-sized poppy field. The opium in the poppies makes all of them fall asleep, except the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman, who cannot smell anything. A thick snow rains down and kills the poppies. The Scarecrow and Tin Woodman look on in awe as the Snow Queen and her Snow Children all appear in a sleigh pulled by reindeer. The Snow Children get out and lift the sleeping characters up and put them in the sleigh. Act One ends as they ride off into the snow toward the Emerald City.



ACT TWO: The Guardian patrols outside the Gates of the Emerald City. The sleigh carrying all the main characters appears. Dorothy, Pastoria, Dashemoff and the others are now awake. Sir Wiley Gyle enters. He is a mad old inventor who scorns all magic. He is soon captured and sent to the Emerald City dungeon. So, the travelers all enter the Emerald City. In the Courtyard of the Emerald City, the Phantom Patrol greets the travelers. The Patrol disappears and reappears, and soon leaves for good. Cynthia returns and asks Pastoria if he is her Niccolo. When he says no, she becomes furious. The Wizard's Wise Men, led by Bardo, enter and introduce the Wizard himself. He performs magic tricks to entertain the crowd and sings the song "Mr. Dooley". The distraught Cynthia asks the Wizard if he is her Niccolo, and is further outraged when he says no. She exits. Dorothy, the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman come forward and request their desires (home, brains, heart). The Wizard gives the Scarecrow a brain of the Mark Hana variety and the Tin Woodman a heart. He declares this the greatest of all his achievements and calls for a celebration. The Ball of All Nations is thrown, in which anywhere up to twelve songs are song by various characters. The Wizard performs a basket trick in which Pastoria is the mark. In the middle of the trick he claims his right to the throne and overthrows the Wizard. A great commotion breaks out, with the Wizard escaping in a hot air balloon. Dorothy, still longing for home, sets off with her companions to the castle of Glinda the Good Witch of the South. End of Act Two.



ACT THREE: Dorothy and her friends arrive at the palace and are welcomed. There are great celebrations, with Glinda promising to send Dorothy home. The whole cast rushes out from the wings and sings the finale.



] Conception and Script

The origins of the idea of dramatising The Wonderful Wizard of Oz on stage is debatable. L. Frank Baum claimed once that a woman walked up to him on the street one day and suggested that the book be adapted to the stage. This, however, is unlikely. But for whatever reason Baum, his friend Paul Tietjens and The Wonderful Wizard of Oz illustrator W. W. Denslow got together to attempt to bring the novel to the stage. They had a basic formula worked out: Baum would write the stage script, Tietjens would write the songs and Denslow would design the costumes and sets, which he would pattern after his illustrations. Baum completed the script, Tietjens completed the songs and Denslow complete the costume and set designs. They submitted this package to producer Fred R. Hamlin in hope he would accept it. Hamlin liked it, and approached Julian Mitchell to be director. Mitchell received the script and read it. He did not like it, criticizing its lack of spectacle, calling it too subdued and small-scale. However, he sent a wire to Hamlin with the message 'Can see possibilities for extravanganza'. Thus, Mitchell accepted the project. However, he brought in new songwriters to write a new set of song, keeping only one or two of the original Tietjens numbers. He totally rewrote the script, introducing new characters, exploits, giving the Cowardly Lion a smaller part and deleting the character of the Wicked Witch of the West entirely. Baum was anxious about this, but went along with it, hoping Mitchell's experience in directing and the casting of comedy team Fred Stone and Dave Montgomery as the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman would make the show a hit. It was, luckily, a roaring success and broke records in almost every theatre it played at.



] Production

The play was written by L. Frank Baum himself, though after producer Fred R. Hamlin and director Julian Mitchell rejected his 1901 spec script, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, which held close to the novel, he wrote a completely new script based on their desires. He hired the librettist of Babes in Toyland, Glen MacDonough to add topical humor he felt himself incapable of writing. Most of the original songs were written by Paul Tietjens on Baum's lyrics, but three, "The Guardian of the Gate" which was cut after only a few performances, "The Different Ways of Making Love" (which sounded less risqué at the time) and "It Happens Every Day" were composed by Nathaniel D. Mann, who later wrote the score for Baum's 1908 film/theatrical presentation, The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays. Most of Baum's songs related to the story in some way, as in operetta, but as performed, the play was more like vaudeville, and new songs by other songwriters were frequently substituted. In fact, the first song interpolated into the musical was "The Traveler and the Pie", a major number for the Scarecrow, a song Baum and Tietjens had intended for a play called The Octopus; or the Title Trust, which was never produced and possibly never completed. This was to be an exception in that it was written by Baum and Tietjens, but it was a classic of the time and stayed in the show. James O'Dea and Edward Hutchinson wrote one of the show's most celebrated songs, "Sammy", which was sung by Tryxie Tryfle about a lost love before Pastoria, though the only contemporary recording of the piece was sung by a man!



The witches are largely absent in this version; The Good Witch of the North appears, named Locasta, and The Wicked Witch of the East is a special effect. The Wicked Witch of the West does not appear, and Glinda was written out, as she does not appear in the original Broadway cast list, although she does appear on another one. The reason for her omission was because she only appeared Act Three, and in 1903 the whole of Act Three was rewritten by Julian Mitchell and revolved around the Borderland that divides Oz and Glinda's Domain, and Dorothy and her friends trying to escape Pastoria. Toto, Dorothy's dog, has also been replaced, by a cow named Imogene.



New characters in the script include King Pastoria II, Oz's true king working as a Kansas motorman and his girlfriend, Trixie Tryfle, a waitress. His return takes up a bit more of the story than Dorothy's desire to return home. Another subplot includes Cynthia Cynch, the Lady Lunatic, a prototype for Nimmie Amee, in that she is the Tin Woodman's girlfriend. Niccolo Chopper was renowned for his ability to play the piccolo, which was the subject of one of her songs, and he is shown playing a piccolo in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, which, the first Oz film made without Baum, was highly influenced by the popular play. The Wizard was presented as various ethnic stock character stereotypes, depending upon who played him. He was assisted by Sir Wiley Gyle and General Riskitt. David L. Greene and Dick Martin erroneously captioned a picture of General Riskitt as "Sir Wiley Gyle" in The Oz Scrapbook, and Donald Abbott carried this mistake over into his illustrations for How the Wizard Saved Oz.



The animals in the play, including the Cowardly Lion, did not speak, based on pantomime tradition. Although the lion costume was realistic, far more so than Bert Lahr's in the MGM film, his main purpose was a bit of comic relief and scaring off the villains on occasion. His quest for courage is completely omitted, much as the other characters' quests are deemphasized in favor of various comic routines. Ultimately, though, their desire to seek the Wizard's aid gets them caught on the wrong side of the revolution, jailed and ultimately scheduled for execution. In a deus ex machina, another tornado arrives to sweep Dorothy home from the chopping block.



Many new plot twists are virtually pointless. In addition to a kiss of protection, Dorothy gets three wishes, one of which is wasted on a triviality. The second is used to bring the Scarecrow to life, and the third is used so she can learn the song Sir Dashemoff Daily (a trouser role) has written to his girlfriend, Carrie Barry. This song was written by Baum and Tietjens, but some programs credited the song to Glen MacDonough and A. Baldwin Sloane to make their connection to the play look greater.



Probably the biggest influence on the 1939 MGM film, aside from making the story into a musical (for which many at MGM thought this show's classic songs should be utilized, though they were outvoted), is the Poppy Sequence that ended Act I. In the novel, Baum imaginatively has a legion of field mice pull a cart with the Cowardly Lion out of the poppy field. This was deemed unfeasible (though the stage version of The Wiz created a variation, with the mice as anthropomorphic vice cops), and Baum, though he included it in the 1901 script, replaced the scene with that of the Snow Queen creating a storm that destroys the poppies, much as Glinda does in the 1939 movie. This concluded Act I with an elaborate dance known as "Winter Jubilation", which James Patrick Doyle plays on synthesizers on the album, Before the Rainbow: The Original Music of Oz.



Because there were no cast albums in those days, productions of the musical often exceeded four hours in length because of multiple demands for encores, since many of the attendees knew they would never get to attend again, and these encores were responded to. Popular songs were often sung multiple times and this was often used to gauge whether a song should be retained or dropped. Two popular routines that were worked in include a sailing routine and a football routine, the latter parodying the level of violence in the sport, which had recently been lessened due to new regulations.



] Sequel

The success of the play led Baum to write The Marvelous Land of Oz after four years of demand for a sequel to the novel. He dedicated the book to Montgomery and Stone, and made the roles of the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman prominent, with the roles of Dorothy and the Cowardly Lion reduced to a reminiscence. After the team balked at leaving Wizard for a sequel, Baum wrote the stage musical, The Woggle-Bug, eliminating the Tin Woodman, replacing the Scarecrow with Regent Sir Richard Spud, replacing Glinda with Maetta from The Magical Monarch of Mo and renaming the Emerald City the "City of Jewels," though Oz is mentioned several times. The first appearance of the title character was moved from halfway through the novel to the opening scene, and his mentor, Professor Knowitall, name shortened to Professor Knowitt, was raised to the level of romantic lead with a girlfriend named Prissy Pring, a Captain in General Jinjur's Army of Revolt. Jack Pumpkinhead and The Woggle-Bug became a comic team analogous to the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman. The play was performed at the Garrick Theatre in Chicago and opened to reviews panning Baum's script and praising the score by Frederic Chapin. No songs were interpolated, but the general consensus was that the play was a cash-in or rip-off of The Wizard of Oz rather than a sequel



] Revivals

The musical comedy was performed in a concert version in New York City in the 1980s by the New Amsterdam Theatre Company. And it has been revived in Tarpon Springs, Florida by the New Century Opera Company in 1998 and, most recently, July 2006. Hungry Tiger Press announced several years ago that it would be publishing the complete libretto for the first time, but has been delayed years beyond the original announcement on claims of finding new material, though many suspect the sudden death of James Patrick Doyle was the major factor. There have been several new recordings of the songs, though none have had major distribution.



The Canton Comic Opera Company in Canton, Ohio, the only theatre company in the world dedicated solely to the preservation and performance of American operettas, has recently completed a restoration of the original 1903 Broadway version which will be performed in July 2010. Their production will be the first in over 80 years with full orchestra.[1]



] Music



] by Paul Tietjens

Prelude

Life in Kansas

Cyclone

Kristyn Lewman

Transformation

Maypole Dance

Death of the Wicked Witch

Locasta's Entrance

Invocation & Death of the Poppies

Transformation

Winter Jubilation

Hayfoot, Strawfoot

Phantom Patrol

Waltz & Grand March

Lanciers

Schottische

[edit] by L. Frank Baum and Paul Tietjens

Just a Simple Girl from the Prairie (Dorothy Gale)

Niccolo's Piccolo (sometimes attributed to MacDonough and Sloan) (Cynthia Cynch)

Carrie Barry (sometimes attributed to MacDonough and Sloan) (Dorothy Gale)

The Scarecrow (Alas for the Man Without Brains) (Scarecrow)

Love Is Love (Sir Dashemoff Daily)

When You Love, Love, Love (Scarecrow, Tin Woodman, and Dorothy Gale)

Poppy Song (Poppy Chorus)

When We Get What's A'comin to Us (Dorothy Gale, Scarecrow, Tin Woodman)

The Wizard Is No Longer King (Ensemble)

The Traveler and the Pie (Scarecrow)

] by L. Frank Baum and Nathaniel D. Mann

The Guardian of the Gate (Guardian of the Gates) (cut after first few Chicago performances)

The Different Ways of Making Love (Dorothy Gale and Cynthia Cynch)

It Happens Every Day

] by John Slavin and Nathaniel D. Mann

She Didn't Really Mind the Thing at All (Wizard)

] by A. Baldwin Sloane and Glen MacDonough

In Michigan (Pastoria)

The Man Who Stays in Town (Pastoria and Tryxie Tryfle) (unconfirmed, uncredited attribution)

Star of My Native Land (Pastoria)

[edit] by William Jerome and Jean Schwartz

Mr. Dooley (Wizard)and nikita tysheonna king

] by Edgar Smith and A. Baldwin Sloane

Connemara Christening (Tin Woodman)

Spanish Bolero (Scarecrow)

[] by Weslyn and Albert

The Witch Behind the Moon

] by Harry Freeman

I'll Be Your Honey in the Springtime (Dorothy Gale and Chorus)

] by James O'Dea and Edward Hutchinson

Sammy (Tryxie Tryfle)

As Long as There's Love in the World (Sir Dashemoff Daily)

 by Matt C. Woodward and Benjamin Jerome

Bloomin' Lize (Scarecrow and Tin Woodman)

] by Will D. Cobb and Gus Edwards

Rosalie (Dorothy Gale and Cynthia Cynch)

I Love Only One Girl in the Wide, Wide World (Sir Dashemoff Daily)

The Tale of a Cassowary (Cynthia Cynch)

Johnnie I'll Take You (Tryxie Tryfle)

I'll Never Love Another Love Like I Love You (Sir Dashemoff Daily)

] by Hugh Morton and Gustave Kerker

The Lobster Song (I Was Walking 'Round the Ocean) (Scarecrow and Tin Woodman)

] by Frank Leo

That's Where She Sits All Day (Scarecrow and Tin Woodman in "cockney Negro")

] by Vincent Bryan and Theodore F. Morse

Nautical Nonsense (Hurrah for Baffin's Bay!) (Scarecrow and Tin Woodman)

[edit] by Henry M. Blossom, Jr. and George A. Spink

Honey, My Sweet (Dorothy Gale)

] by Harry Boden, David C. Montgomery, and Bert Brantford

Must You? (Tin Woodman, with Scarecrow)

] by Ed Gardenier and Edwin S. Brill

Things That We Don't Learn at School

] by Vincent Bryan and J.B. Mullen

Down on the Brandywine (Trixie Tryfle and Pastoria)

'Twas Enough to Make a Perfect Lady Mad (Cynthia Cynch)

Under a Panama (Dorothy Gale)

The Nightmare (Scarecrow and Tin Woodman)

[edit] by Will R. Anderson

I Love You All the Time (Sir Dashemoff Daily)

] by Edward P. Moran and Seymour Furth

Mary Canary (Sir Dashemoff Daily)

] by Williams and Vanalstyne

Johnnie Morgan

[edit] by Charles Zimmerman and Frank Keesee

Only You (Sir Dashemoff Daily)

] by Charles Zimmerman and Hollister

When the Heart is Sad (Sir Dashemoff Daily)

 by Vincent Bryan and Charles Zimmerman

Marching Thro' Georgia (Scarecrow and Tin Woodman)

Sitting Bull (Scarecrow)

Football (Scarecrow and Tin Woodman)

Marching Through Port Arthur (Scarecrow and Tin Woodman)

] by Vincent Bryan and Leo Edwards

The Tale of the Monkey (Cynthia Cynch)

My Own Girl (Sir Dashemoff Daily)

 by Frank R. Adams, Will M. Hough, and Joseph E. Howard

Julie Dooley (Wizard) (originally from The Horse And His Boy (1905))

 by George Totten Smith, Byrd Dougherty, and Benjamin M. Jerome

The Tale of a Stroll (Tryxie Tryfle) (originally from The Swedish Chef (1904))

 by James A. Brennan

Fraidy Cat (Dorothy Gale) (introduced in 1911 stock production)

 Show Tour

The show toured from 1903 to 1909. It ran on Broadway from January to October of 1903, and again from March 1904 to October of 1905.





The Wizard of Oz (adaptations) — other adaptations of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz




General Land of Oz · Forest of Burzee · Land of Ev · Mo · Ix · Noland · Characters · Major books · Apocrypha · Adaptations · The Oz Film Manufacturing Company



Authors L. Frank Baum · Ruth Plumly Thompson · John R. Neill · Jack Snow · Rachel Cosgrove Payes · Eloise McGraw · Alexander Volkov · Sherwood Smith



Illustrators William Wallace Denslow · John R. Neill · Frank Kramer · Dirk Gringhuis · Dick Martin · Eric Shanower



Characters Princess Ozma · Dorothy Gale · Scarecrow · Tin Woodman · Cowardly Lion · Hungry Tiger · The Sawhorse · The Wizard of Oz · Good Witch of the North · Glinda · Wicked Witch of the West · Nome King · Mombi · Ugu the shoemaker · Tik-Tok · Jack Pumpkinhead · Aunt Em · Uncle Henry · Cap'n Bill · Unc Nunkie · Jellia Jamb · Woggle-Bug · Shaggy Man · Polychrome · Frogman · Cayke · Ervic · Belfaygor of Bourne · Toto · Billina · Eureka · Glass Cat · Button-Bright · Betsy Bobbin · Trot · Peter Brown · Wicked Witch of the East · Bell-snickle · Jenny Jump · Soldier with the Green Whiskers · Guardian of the Gates · Dr. Pipt · Ojo the Lucky · Ku-Klip · Nimmie Amee · Patchwork Girl · Jinjur · Woozy · Kabumpo · Sir Hokus of Pokes · Jinnicky the Red Jinn · Pigasus · Pastoria · Gayelette · Queen Lurline · Princess Langwidere · Queen Coo-ee-oh · Herby · Mrs. Yoop · Johnny Dooit · The Gump · Boq · Munchkins · Winkies · Quadlings · Gillikins



Adaptations Official canon The Wizard of Oz (1902) · The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays · The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1910) · Dorothy and the Scarecrow in Oz · The Land of Oz · The Patchwork Girl of Oz · The Magic Cloak of Oz · His Majesty, the Scarecrow of Oz · Wizard of Oz (1925) · The Wizard of Oz (1933) · The Wizard of Oz (1939) · Tales of the Wizard of Oz · Return to Oz (1964) · The Wonderful Land of Oz · Journey Back to Oz (1974) · The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1975) · The Marvelous Land of Oz · The Wizard of Oz (1982) · Return to Oz (1985) · The Wizard of Oz in Concert: Dreams Come True · Lost in Oz · Dorothy of Oz · Dorothy Meets Ozma of Oz (1987) · The Muppets' Wizard of Oz · Emerald City Confidential · The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (comics) · Dorothy of Oz (2011) · The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (2011)



TV series The Wizard of Oz (1990) · The Oz Kids (1996)



Translations The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1986 TV series) · The Wonderful Galaxy of Oz · Os Trapalhões e o Mágico de Oróz · Ayşecik ve Sihirli Cüceler Rüyalar Ülkesinde



Parodies The Wonderful Wizard of Ha's



Reimagining The Wizard of Mars · Zardoz · Oz · Twister · Tin Man





The Wiz Broadway Musical (1975) · Film (1978)



The Wicked Years Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West · Son of a Witch · A Lion Among Men · Wicked

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